Professor Clare Mills

Photograph of Clare Mills

Professor of Molecular Allergology

Institute of Inflammation and Repair,

Manchester Academic Health Science Centre,

Room 1.021.

Manchester Institute of Biotechnology

University of Manchester

131 Princess Street

Manchester M1 7DN, UK

Memberships of Committees and Professional Bodies

2005-2010 EFSA Self-task Food Allergy working group of the GMO panel

2006-present Food Standards Agency Advisory Committee on Novel Foods and Processes

2008-2012 BBSRC DRINC Steering Group

2009-2011 BBSRC Committee C Core Panel Member 


My research is focussed around the relationship between biophysical properties of proteins and polysaccharides, and their structural attributes within the context of behaviour during digestion in the gastrointestinal tract, and in particular with regards what makes some foods, like peanut, more allergenic than others, and why some food proteins become allergens. Different types of foods may elicit a variety of physiological and psychological responses which will have a direct impact on our health and well being. We are discovering what the rules are that govern the changes in natural and fabricated food structures (including nano-scale structures) during digestion and how that affects the form and uptake of food proteins, including allergens, by the gut epithelium. A bioinformatic analysis of food allergens of plant and animal origin has shown a restricted membership of protein superfamilies, supporting molecular and structural approaches to allergen classification. We are now seeking to discover why certain protein scaffolds dominate known allergens from foods, how the structural and biological properties conferred by these scaffolds may predisposes a protein to becoming a food allergen, and how this may be altered by food processing and the food matrix. In particular we have been investigating how thermal denaturation and adsorption at interfaces results in formation of partially-folded states and aggregated protein networks. The impact of such changes, together with biomolecular interactions with other components, such as lipids, on the kinetics of simulated gastrointestinal proteolysis is being investigated using proteomic approaches. This is complimented by studies on the effect on allergenicity, in terms of, for example human allergic IgE-binding capacity, undertaken in collaboration with researchers around the world through the EuroPrevall project. A second strand of research activity has been the characterisation of polysaccharides as a function of genetics and environment using a combination of spectroscopic imaging techniques (Fourier-transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies) coupled with analysis using mass spectrometry (protein constituents) and NMR spectroscopy (cell wall components).  Through BBSRC and EU funding in collaboration with researchers at the Institute of Food Research and Rothamsted Research, we have shown, for the first time, spatial heterogeneity in the distribution of non-starch polysaccharides with different branching patterns (and hence solubility). This alters during grain development in hitherto unsuspected ways and we have now demonstrated that the structure of the walls alters in response to the GI tract environment, which may have implications for understanding the role of whole grain foods in human health.


After a short spell in London at the Department of health after I completed my PhD I went to work at the BBSRC Institute of Food Research (IFR) in Norwich where I became a head of the Physical Biochemistry Group in 1999. In 2005 I took over the leadership of the food material science research at IFR and working with four other research leaders developed a new programme of research relating food structure to health benefits of foods. This took the largely physical sciences knowledge base derived from food behaviour during food processing in a factory environment and applying it to understanding environmental responsiveness of foods during digestion in the biological-processing environment of the gastrointestinal tract. Specifically the programme sought to gain an understanding the rules governing the assembly of natural and fabricated food structures (including nano-scale structures), their subsequent disassembly during digestion and uptake by the gut epithelium. This has also involved promoting a transdisciplinary approach, linking physical scientists with physiologists, clinicians and psychologists to achieve its overall aims and goals. In my capacity as a BBSRC Institute Strategic Programme Grant leader I was also a member of the IFR Executive Board.

In 2011 I moved to the University of Manchester to take up my current position. Based in the Manchester Institute of Biotechnology and working with the Respiratory and Allergy Research team at the University Hospital of South Manchester led by Professor Adnan Custovic, I am now applying my molecular science to understand, better diagnose and treat food allergies. This research stems from work I have done through a series of projects funded across several EU Frame Work Programmes. Through these projects I developed a network of researchers that put forward the expression of interest on food allergy which subsequently the consortium applied for, and won, and came on to become the EuroPrevall project. Spanning 17 countries, including India, China, Russia and Ghana, it had 63 partners spanning clinical science, epidemiology, social science, biochemical and immunological sciences, academia and industry. Successfully completed at the end of 2009 the future challenge will be to realise the knowledge currently locked up in the large amounts of data and biological samples (including DNA) collected through the project activities in the coming years to understand the basis of food allergies and deliver more effective management strategies.  


BSc Hons in Biochemistry (University of Bristol, UK)

PhD Biochemistry (University of Kent at Canterbury, UK)



  • Abdullah, S. U., Alexeev, Y., Johnson, P. E., Rigby, N., Mackie, A. R., Dhaliwal, B., & Mills, E. C. (2016). Ligand binding to an Allergenic Lipid Transfer Protein Enhances Conformational Flexibility resulting in an Increase in Susceptibility to Gastroduodenal Proteolysis. Scientific Reports. . Publication link: 9a78a3c8-5dda-4c31-9aeb-223369c78770
  • Downs, M. L., Simpson, A., Custovic, A., Semic-Jusufagic, A., Bartra, J., Fernandez-Rivas, M., ... Mills, E. N. C. (2016). Insoluble and soluble roasted walnut proteins retain antibody reactivity.Food Chemistry, 194. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.08.119. Publication link: 4e51541a-41b3-49a0-8eba-1236b1700680 | PubMed:26471647
  • Downs, M., Baumert, J. L., Taylor, S. L., & Mills, C. (2016). Mass spectrometric analysis of allergens in roasted walnuts. Journal of Proteomics, 142, 62-69. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2016.04.045. Publication link: 05254c9c-369d-4fa3-8690-1241efa1efe7
  • Johnson, P. E., Sayers, R. L., Gethings, L. A., Balasundaram, A., Marsh, J. T., Langridge, J. I., & Mills, E. C. (2016). Quantitative proteomic profiling of peanut allergens in food ingredients used for oral food challenges. Anal Chem. DOI:10.1021/acs.analchem.5b04466. Publication link: f34f7c9a-50fc-4c8a-88f0-2d25d3b337d9 | PubMed:27064171
  • Sayers, R., Johnson, P. E., Marsh, J. T., Barran, P., Brown, H., & Mills, E. C. (2016). The effect of thermal processing on the behaviour of peanut allergen peptide targets used in multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry experiments. Analyst. . Publication link: 42c5f200-9293-47c7-8af2-5ae719ffdc5b
  • Turner, P. J., Baumert, J. L., Beyer, K., Boyle, R. J., Chan, C. H., Clark, A. T., ... Ballmer-Weber, B. K. (2016). Can we identify patients at risk of life-threatening allergic reactions to food?. Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. DOI:10.1111/all.12924. Publication link: 37849374-d435-4e9b-b519-a3cadad8a0d7


  • Ballmer-Weber, B. K., Fernandez-Rivas, M., Beyer, K., Defernez, M., Sperrin, M., Mackie, A. R., ... Mills, E. N. C. (2015). How much is too much? Threshold dose distributions for 5 food allergens.The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 135(4). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.10.047. Publication link: 9e2260e8-c265-4c16-a125-4ec16f7e7655 | PubMed:25589011
  • Ballmer-Weber, B. K., Lidholm, J., Fernandez-Rivas, M., Seneviratne, S., Hanschmann, K. M., Vogel, L., ... Vieths, S. (2015). IgE recognition patterns in peanut allergy are age dependent: perspectives of the EuroPrevall study (vol 70, pg 391, 2015). Allergy, 70(6), 725-725. DOI:10.1111/all.12621. Publication link: 99c356aa-45ad-4b4f-82bf-b5ad584ec047
  • Datema, M. R., Zuidmeer-Jongejan, L., Asero, R., Barreales, L., Belohlavkova, S., de Blay, F., ... van Ree, R. (2015). Hazelnut allergy across Europe dissected molecularly: A EuroPrevall outpatient clinic survey.The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 136(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.12.1949. Publication link: 11088a1a-98de-4ff1-a45e-674e31e6661c | PubMed:25772593
  • DunnGalvin, A., Chun-Han, C., Crevel, R., Grimshaw, K., Poms, R., Schnadt, S., ... Chan, C-H. (2015). Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups. Allergy, 70(9). DOI:10.1111/all.12614. Publication link: 0f646e43-4240-47a1-8b35-fa61444dd119 | PubMed:25808296
  • Fernandez-Rivas, M., Barreales, L., Mackie, A. R., Fritsche, P., Vazquez-Cortes, S., Jedrzejczak-Czechowicz, M., ... Ballmer-Weber, B. K. (2015). The EuroPrevall outpatient clinic study on food allergy: background and methodology. Allergy, 70(5), 576-584. DOI:10.1111/all.12585. Publication link: 13105fea-a0e9-4b86-b7c6-33f14bcae1f4
  • Fleischer, D. M., Sicherer, S., Greenhawt, M., Campbell, D., Chan, E., Muraro, A., ... Rosenwasser, L. (2015). Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants.Annals of allergy, asthma & immunology : official publication of the American College of Allergy, Asthma, & Immunology, 115(2). DOI:10.1016/j.anai.2015.06.001. Publication link: c8e46f47-a4a0-435f-8899-4c7e23e1106c | PubMed:26122934
  • Fleischer, D. M., Sicherer, S., Greenhawt, M., Campbell, D., Chan, E., Muraro, A., ... Rosenwasser, L. (2015). Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants.The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 136(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.06.001. Publication link: 065aacec-7e34-4820-879f-76a33bc48fa1 | PubMed:26100082
  • Juvonen, K. R., Macierzanka, A., Lille, M. E., Laaksonen, D. E., Mykkänen, H. M., Niskanen, L. K., ... Karhunen, L. J. (2015). Cross-linking of sodium caseinate-structured emulsion with transglutaminase alters postprandial metabolic and appetite responses in healthy young individuals.The British journal of nutrition, 114(3). DOI:10.1017/S0007114515001737. Publication link: 7f3b73af-1a4e-4c88-bf32-d7b91d30c740 | PubMed:26159899
  • Koplin, J. J., Mills, E. N. C., & Allen, K. J. (2015). Epidemiology of food allergy and food-induced anaphylaxis: is there really a Western world epidemic?. Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology, 15(5). DOI:10.1097/ACI.0000000000000196. Publication link: e9ca3be5-eddb-4a2e-bc1c-a11d7d8b97af | PubMed:26258921
  • Le, T-M., van Hoffen, E., Kummeling, I., Potts, J., Ballmer-Weber, B. K., Bruijnzeel-Koomen, C. A., ... Knulst, A. C. (2015). Food allergy in the Netherlands: differences in clinical severity, causative foods, sensitization and DBPCFC between community and outpatients.Clinical and translational allergy, 5. DOI:10.1186/s13601-015-0051-1. Publication link: f3b4526b-3d48-48f0-9ad9-d884e55914c0 | PubMed:25774288
  • Munro, C., Semic-Jusufagic, A., Pyrz, K., Couch, P., Dunn-Galvin, A., Peek, N., ... Simpson, A. (2015). An eHealth Approach to Reporting Allergic Reactions to Food and Closing the Knowledge Gap.Studies in health technology and informatics, 216. . Publication link: 9a5d8ba4-31ed-458b-b246-756ed2125a94 | PubMed:26262063
  • Schoemaker, A. A., Sprikkelman, A. B., Grimshaw, K. E., Roberts, G., Grabenhenrich, L., Rosenfeld, L., ... Beyer, K. (2015). Incidence and natural history of challenge-proven cow's milk allergy in European children--EuroPrevall birth cohort.Allergy, 70(8). DOI:10.1111/all.12630. Publication link: 14ef93d5-230b-4af9-96b3-89f0ea3f1791 | PubMed:25864712
  • Simpson, A., Lazic, N., Belgrave, D. C. M., Johnson, P., Bishop, C., Mills, C., & Custovic, A. (2015). Patterns of IgE responses to multiple allergen components and clinical symptoms at age 11 years.The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 136(5). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2015.03.027. Publication link: 7e45fdb8-643b-4c99-b63e-8e1360809c7f | PubMed:25935108
  • Smith, F., Pan, X., Bellido, V., Toole, G. A., Gates, F. K., Wickham, M. S. J., ... Mills, C. (2015). Digestibility of gluten proteins is reduced by baking and enhanced by starch digestion.Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (Online), 59(10), 2034–2043. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201500262. Publication link: d62fb452-b953-4838-8e99-8d9c31748c6e
  • Walker, M. J., Burns, D. T., Elliott, C. T., Gowland, M. H., & Mills, E. N. C. (2015). Is food allergen analysis flawed? Health and supply chain risks and a proposed framework to address urgent analytical needs.The Analyst. DOI:10.1039/c5an01457c. Publication link: 40ea5435-499d-4bd8-b48f-555f933c8a2f | PubMed:26536312
  • Zuidmeer-Jongejan, L., Huber, H., Swoboda, I., Rigby, N., Versteeg, S. A., Jensen, B. M., ... van Ree, R. (2015). Development of a hypoallergenic recombinant parvalbumin for first-in-man subcutaneous immunotherapy of fish allergy.International archives of allergy and immunology, 166(1), 41-51. DOI:10.1159/000371657. Publication link: 619595eb-9fa1-48d7-bf66-1e84acc32c48 | PubMed:25765512


  • Allen, K. J., Turner, P. J., Pawankar, R., Taylor, S., Sicherer, S., Lack, G., ... Sampson, H. A. (2014). Precautionary labelling of foods for allergen content: are we ready for a global framework?. The World Allergy Organization journal, 7(1). DOI:10.1186/1939-4551-7-10. Publication link: 1a7d1474-7f54-4a24-a2f9-ece5a2407307 | PubMed:24791183
  • Burney, P. G. J., Potts, J., Kummeling, I., Mills, E. N. C., Clausen, M., Dubakiene, R., ... Van Ree, R. (2014). The prevalence and distribution of food sensitization in European adults. Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 69(3), 365-371. DOI:10.1111/all.12341. Publication link: bce446c8-b39e-43f2-a93a-2047d81fd5f3 | PubMed:24372074
  • Dang, T. D., Mills, C. E. N., & Allen, K. J. (2014). Determination of the clinical egg allergy phenotypes using component-resolved diagnostics.Pediatric allergy and immunology : official publication of the European Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, 25(7). DOI:10.1111/pai.12301. Publication link: b525ee67-0602-4bf5-a673-1a4e27f8d10d | PubMed:25376255
  • Downs, M. L., Semic-Jusufagic, A., Simpson, A., Bartra, J., Fernandez-Rivas, M., Rigby, N. M., ... Mills, E. N. C. (2014). Characterization of Low Molecular Weight Allergens from English Walnut (Juglans regia).Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 62(48). DOI:10.1021/jf504672m. Publication link: 5a407159-677a-4b89-9d0b-faa26124441b | PubMed:25388987
  • Mills, C., Johnson, P. E., Rigby, N. M., Dainty, J. R., Mackie, A. R., Immer, U. U., ... Mills, E. N. C. (2014). A multi-laboratory evaluation of a clinically-validated incurred quality control material for analysis of allergens in food. Food Chemistry, 148, 30-36. DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.09.115. Publication link: 93592916-f783-4ac2-997d-cabf9dabb50e | PubMed:24262522
  • Mills, C., Kroghsbo, S., Rigby, N. M., Johnson, P. E., Adel-Patient, K., Bøgh, K. L., ... Madsen, C. B. (2014). Assessment of the sensitizing potential of processed peanut proteins in Brown Norway rats: Roasting does not enhance allergenicity. PLoS ONE, 9(5), [e96475]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0096475. Publication link: 1cbc6dd2-133a-4724-b6ae-d8714cd37cbd | PubMed:24805813
  • Muraro, A., Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K., Holzhauser, T., Poulsen, L. K., Gowland, M. H., Akdis, C. A., ... Vieths, S. (2014). EAACI Food Allergy and Anaphylaxis Guidelines. Protecting consumers with food allergies: Understanding food consumption, meeting regulations and identifying unmet needs. Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 69(11), 1464-1472. DOI:10.1111/all.12453. Publication link: e5158c3d-e836-4df6-b0c8-2a61109235b2 | PubMed:24888964
  • Turner, P. J., Mehr, S., Sayers, R., Wong, M., Shamji, M. H., Campbell, D. E., & Mills, E. N. C. (2014). Loss of allergenic proteins during boiling explains tolerance to boiled peanut in peanut allergy. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2014.06.016. Publication link: 6ed005fb-c0c2-4801-ad71-e16f0cd6cead | PubMed:25065723


  • Fernandez, A., Mills, E. N. C., Lovik, M., Spoek, A., Germini, A., Mikalsen, A., & Wal, J. M. (2013). Endogenous allergens and compositional analysis in the allergenicity assessment of genetically modified plants. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 62, 1-6. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2013.08.023. Publication link: 75a89440-2640-45e5-b7eb-cad46d9a379b | PubMed:23959104
  • Fox, M., Mugford, M., Voordouw, J., Cornelisse-Vermaat, J., Antonides, G., De La Hoz Caballer, B., ... Mills, C. E. N. (2013). Health sector costs of self-reported food allergy in Europe: A patient-based cost of illness study. European Journal of Public Health, 23(5), 757-762. DOI:10.1093/eurpub/ckt010. Publication link: a513cc22-6703-44bf-ac02-cea8de0fecc9 | PubMed:23402805
  • Mills, C., Bøgh, K. L., Nielsen, H., Eiwegger, T., Madsen, C. B., Mills, E. N. C., ... Roggen, E. L. (2013). IgE versus IgG4 epitopes of the peanut allergen Ara h 1 in patients with severe allergy. Molecular Immunology, 58(2), 169-176. DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2013.11.014. Publication link: 78575952-935a-4f83-bf25-063852a93ff0 | PubMed:24365751
  • Mills, C., Toole, G. A., Selvatico, E., Salt, L. J., Le Gall, G., Colquhoun, I. J., ... Mills, E. N. C. (2013). Effect of dough mixing on wheat endosperm cell walls. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 61(10), 2522-2529. DOI:10.1021/jf304677u. Publication link: b9706dca-8903-4b8d-923f-a86478682b9d | PubMed:23414565
  • Nitride, C., Mamone, G., Picariello, G., Mills, C., Nocerino, R., Berni Canani, R., & Ferranti, P. (2013). Proteomic and immunological characterization of a new food allergen from hazelnut (Corylus avellana). Journal of Proteomics, 86, 16-26. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2013.05.001. Publication link: 78561d58-dc7f-4041-88c4-4117e27500a9 | PubMed:23665001


  • Mackie, A., Knulst, A., Le, T. M., Bures, P., Salt, L., Mills, E. N. C., ... Ballmer-Weber, B. K. (2012). High fat food increases gastric residence and thus thresholds for objective symptoms in allergic patients. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 56(11), 1708-1714. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201200330. Publication link: d79ed12f-284b-4cb4-ba3c-4bb63268ce44 | PubMed:22997185
  • Mills, C., Alessandri, S., Sancho, A., Vieths, S., Mills, C. E. N., Wal, J. M., ... Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K. (2012). High-throughput NMR assessment of the tertiary structure of food allergens. PLoS ONE, 7(7), [e39785]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0039785. Publication link: 7d555d62-18a2-4bf7-bb3a-1860b1e7203b | PubMed:22768312
  • Mills, C., Bøgh, K. L., Nielsen, H., Madsen, C. B., Mills, E. N. C., Rigby, N., ... Roggen, E. L. (2012). IgE epitopes of intact and digested Ara h 1: A comparative study in humans and rats. Molecular Immunology, 51(3-4), 337-346. DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2012.04.002. Publication link: acce048a-2982-4ffe-83a1-ec79073327ec | PubMed:22555070
  • Mills, C., MacIerzanka, A., Böttger, F., Rigby, N. M., Lille, M., Poutanen, K., ... MacKie, A. R. (2012). Enzymatically structured emulsions in simulated gastrointestinal environment: Impact on interfacial proteolysis and diffusion in intestinal mucus. Langmuir, 28(50), 17349-17362. DOI:10.1021/la302194q. Publication link: cc6ab8ae-3aab-4e56-a474-09fe4cc3fdfa | PubMed:23171215
  • Mills, C., Round, A. N., Rigby, N. M., Garcia De La Torre, A., MacIerzanka, A., Mills, E. N. C., & MacKie, A. R. (2012). Lamellar structures of MUC2-rich mucin: A potential role in governing the barrier and lubricating functions of intestinal mucus. Biomacromolecules, 13(10), 3253-3261. DOI:10.1021/bm301024x. Publication link: f0a9fd59-5e69-4e89-afcd-e4dee13f64d7 | PubMed:22978827
  • Papadopoulos, N. G., Agache, I., Bavbek, S., Bilo, B. M., Braido, F., Cardona, V., ... Akdis, C. A. (2012). Research needs in allergy: an EAACI position paper, in collaboration with EFA.Clinical and translational allergy, 2(1). DOI:10.1186/2045-7022-2-21. Publication link: 4f9a47e9-e22a-4396-9bc4-c2e4ba894bfc | PubMed:23121771
  • Zuidmeer-Jongejan, L., Fernandez-Rivas, M., Poulsen, L. K., Neubauer, A., Asturias, J., Blom, L., ... Sigursdottir, S. (2012). FAST: towards safe and effective subcutaneous immunotherapy of persistent life-threatening food allergies.Clinical and translational allergy, 2(1). DOI:10.1186/2045-7022-2-5. Publication link: 8e10536d-3fd7-497f-ab5b-340846f09e7f | PubMed:22409908


  • Blanc, F., Vissers, Y. M., Adel-Patient, K., Rigby, N. M., Mackie, A. R., Gunning, A. P., ... Mills, E. N. C. (2011). Boiling peanut Ara h 1 results in the formation of aggregates with reduced allergenicity. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 55(12), 1887-1894. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201100251. Publication link: 0cd2b7bb-ced5-41f0-9475-229782daf2e0 | PubMed:22086730
  • Bossios, A., Theodoropoulou, M., Mondoulet, L., Rigby, N. M., Papadopoulos, N. G., Bernard, H., ... Papageorgiou, P. (2011). Effect of simulated gastro-duodenal digestion on the allergenic reactivity of beta-lactoglobulin.Clinical and translational allergy, 1(1). DOI:10.1186/2045-7022-1-6. Publication link: 90d1f789-b6cf-4155-8e5d-c095865f20fe | PubMed:22410304
  • Johnson, P. E., Baumgartner, S., Aldick, T., Bessant, C., Giosafatto, V., Heick, J., ... Mills, E. N. C. (2011). Current perspectives and recommendations for the development of mass spectrometry methods for the determination of allergens in foods. Journal of AOAC International, 94(4), 1026-1033. . Publication link: 32734205-af35-4882-abbd-3a0f1119d7ab | PubMed:21919335
  • Johnson, P., Philo, M., Watson, A., & Mills, E. N. C. (2011). Rapid fingerprinting of milk thermal processing history by intact protein mass spectrometry with nondenaturing chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(23), 12420-12427. DOI:10.1021/jf203151e. Publication link: a228c205-b073-4ace-badf-7ff4b29eb1de | PubMed:22007861
  • Kroghsbo, S., Bøgh, K. L., Rigby, N. M., Mills, E. N. C., Rogers, A., & Madsen, C. B. (2011). Sensitization with 7S globulins from peanut, hazelnut, soy or pea induces ige with different biological activities which are modified by soy tolerance. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 155(3), 212-224. DOI:10.1159/000321200. Publication link: 3d6edbec-b7da-4dd0-a096-76e1da3c9a2e | PubMed:21282960
  • Macierzanka, A., Bordron, F., Rigby, N. M., Mills, E. N. C., Lille, M., Poutanen, K., & Mackie, A. R. (2011). Transglutaminase cross-linking kinetics of sodium caseinate is changed after emulsification. Food Hydrocolloids, 25(5), 843-850. DOI:10.1016/j.foodhyd.2010.07.010. Publication link: b884bce1-1f12-4d07-a72b-40b86b18ecc9
  • MacIerzanka, A., Rigby, N. M., Corfield, A. P., Wellner, N., Böttger, F., Mills, E. N. C., & MacKie, A. R. (2011). Adsorption of bile salts to particles allows penetration of intestinal mucus. Soft Matter, 7(18), 8077-8084. DOI:10.1039/c1sm05888f. Publication link: a3d88d1d-2bea-4e05-9d11-5b623f672c44
  • Opanowicz, M., Hands, P., Betts, D., Parker, M. L., Toole, G. A., Mills, E. N. C., ... Drea, S. (2011). Endosperm development in Brachypodium distachyon. Journal of Experimental Botany, 62(2), 735-748. DOI:10.1093/jxb/erq309. Publication link: e8bd8f90-7eb7-4f7d-9e76-1a5c9d76d350 | PubMed:21071680
  • Rigby, N. M., Sancho, A. I., Salt, L. J., Foxall, R., Taylor, S., Raczynski, A., ... Mills, E. N. C. (2011). Quantification and partial characterization of the residual protein in fully and partially refined commercial soybean oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(5), 1752-1759. DOI:10.1021/jf103560h. Publication link: 977e46a4-58f7-4d5d-954d-85028d1543b8 | PubMed:21250696
  • Sancho, A. I., Wangorsch, A., Jensen, B. M., Watson, A., Alexeev, Y., Johnson, P. E., ... Mills, E. N. C. (2011). Responsiveness of the major birch allergen Bet v 1 scaffold to the gastric environment: Impact on structure and allergenic activity. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 55(11), 1690-1699. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201100025. Publication link: 218652d6-6f3e-4d49-ab02-7d19b6b022a9 | PubMed:21770047
  • Toole, G. A., Le Gall, G., Colquhoun, I. J., Johnson, P., Bedö, Z., Saulnier, L., ... Mills, E. N. C. (2011). Spectroscopic analysis of diversity of arabinoxylan structures in endosperm cell walls of wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum) in the HEALTHGRAIN diversity collection. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(13), 7075-7082. DOI:10.1021/jf201095m. Publication link: 66ad667e-874b-4d5e-b8f8-5be2b6ce39b7 | PubMed:21615152
  • Vissers, Y. M., Blanc, F., Skov, P. S., Johnson, P. E., Rigby, N. M., Przybylski-Nicaise, L., ... Adel-Patient, K. (2011). Effect of heating and glycation on the allergenicity of 2S albumins (Ara h 2/6) from peanut. PLoS ONE, 6(8), [e23998]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0023998. Publication link: 403a993e-f421-4c6d-9aaa-f822f20205a9
  • Vissers, Y. M., Iwan, M., Adel-Patient, K., Stahl Skov, P., Rigby, N. M., Johnson, P. E., ... Wichers, H. J. (2011). Effect of roasting on the allergenicity of major peanut allergens Ara h 1 and Ara h 2/6: The necessity of degranulation assays. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 41(11), 1631-1642. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2011.03830.x. Publication link: aa2431f6-29f6-42c4-9c16-0d665389ed15 | PubMed:21801247


  • Berecz, B., Mills, E. N. C., Tamás, L., Láng, F., Shewry, P. R., & MacKie, A. R. (2010). Structural stability and surface activity of sunflower 2S albumins and nonspecific lipid transfer protein. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(10), 6490-6497. DOI:10.1021/jf100554d. Publication link: 71e6ab63-fbfb-4b58-8f3e-1ba0b20269e1 | PubMed:20429585
  • Defernez, M., Mandalari, G., & Mills, E. N. C. (2010). Quantitative assessment of multi-laboratory reproducibility of SDS-PAGE assays: Digestion pattern of β-casein and β-lactoglobulin under simulated conditions. Electrophoresis, 31(16), 2838-2848. DOI:10.1002/elps.201000114. Publication link: 417fbe93-ec69-4169-9de2-a03956d73cd5 | PubMed:20661944
  • Dumont, V., Kerbach, S., Poms, R., Johnson, P., Mills, C., Popping, B., ... Delahaut, P. (2010). Development of milk and egg incurred reference materials for the validation of food allergen detection methods. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 2(4), 208-215. DOI:10.1111/j.1757-837X.2010.00081.x. Publication link: f4afd8bd-3be7-4986-964b-2f69dc40542f
  • Dupont, D., Mandalari, G., Molle, D., Jardin, J., Léonil, J., Faulks, R. M., ... Mackie, A. R. (2010). Comparative resistance of food proteins to adult and infant in vitro digestion models. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 54(6), 767-780. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200900142. Publication link: ac194dbb-a6dd-41d7-875e-6244e912e748 | PubMed:19937605
  • Dupont, D., Mandalari, G., Mollé, D., Jardin, J., Rolet-Répécaud, O., Duboz, G., ... Mackie, A. R. (2010). Food processing increases casein resistance to simulated infant digestion. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 54(11), 1677-1689. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200900582. Publication link: 7c81e6ca-484e-4b88-bbd0-7bb47886352f
  • Guillamón, E., Rodríguez, J., Burbano, C., Muzquiz, M., Pedrosa, M. M., Cabanillas, B., ... Cuadrado, C. (2010). Characterization of lupin major allergens (Lupinus albus L.). Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 54(11), 1668-1676. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200900452. Publication link: 3a4bb706-da7e-425b-9a3b-86644db09eb1 | PubMed:20461737
  • Johnson, P. E., Van Der Plancken, I., Balasa, A., Husband, F. A., Grauwet, T., Hendrickx, M., ... Mackie, A. R. (2010). High pressure, thermal and pulsed electric-field-induced structural changes in selected food allergens. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 54(12), 1701-1710. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.201000006. Publication link: f625fd73-162b-4a02-a8bd-933d99573db6 | PubMed:20568235
  • Keil, T., McBride, D., Grimshaw, K., Niggemann, B., Xepapadaki, P., Zannikos, K., ... Beyer, K. (2010). The multinational birth cohort of EuroPrevall: Background, aims and methods. Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 65(4), 482-490. DOI:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02171.x. Publication link: 866ea4ad-9b88-4bb5-b2e7-a2a45a1b737a | PubMed:19793062
  • Mills, C., Wong, G. W. K., Mahesh, P. A., Ogorodova, L., Leung, T. F., Fedorova, O., ... Burney, P. (2010). The EuroPrevall-INCO surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children from China, India and Russia: The study methodology. Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 65(3), 385-390. DOI:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02214.x. Publication link: 026811a9-0d34-48df-97c1-2a024bb96fcd
  • Sancho, A. I., & Mills, E. N. C. (2010). Proteomic approaches for qualitative and quantitative characterisation of food allergens. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 58(3), S42-S46. DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2010.08.026. Publication link: fefbd311-68ab-4d4b-b647-03dd7f08e9bd | PubMed:20828591
  • Wijesinha-Bettoni, R., Alexeev, Y., Johnson, P., Marsh, J., Sancho, A. I., Abdullah, S. U., ... Clare Mills, E. N. (2010). The structural characteristics of nonspecific lipid transfer proteins explain their resistance to gastroduodenal proteolysis. Biochemistry, 49(10), 2130-2139. DOI:10.1021/bi901939z. Publication link: 6ba30876-5b9e-44ae-9ed8-591d4d51a0b0 | PubMed:20121231


  • Bøgh, K. L., Kroghsbo, S., Dahl, L., Rigby, N. M., Barkholt, V., Mills, E. N. C., & Madsen, C. B. (2009). Digested Ara h 1 has sensitizing capacity in Brown Norway rats. Clinical and Experimental Allergy, 39(10), 1611-1621. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2222.2009.03333.x. Publication link: a2c87f9f-808b-45da-b1d0-9a19482f0260 | PubMed:19689460
  • Gaier, S., Oberhuber, C., Hemmer, W., Radauer, C., Rigby, N. M., Marsh, J. T., ... Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K. (2009). Pru p 3 as a marker for symptom severity for patients with peach allergy in a birch pollen environment. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 124(1), 166-167. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2009.02.023. Publication link: 02d0871e-1e9d-4ac9-b463-ba5ec17fc40c
  • Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K., & Mills, E. N. C. (2009). Food allergen protein families and their structural characteristics and application in component-resolved diagnosis: New data from the EuroPrevall project. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 395(1), 25-35. DOI:10.1007/s00216-009-2953-z. Publication link: 1d881b0c-81c5-42e1-bf66-72b48c878ff6 | PubMed:19639305
  • Kerbach, S., Alldrick, A. J., Crevel, R. W. R., Lilla, D., DunnGalvin, A., Mills, E. N. C., ... Sandor, T. (2009). Managing food allergens in the food supply chain-viewed from different stakeholder perspectives. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 1(1), 50-60. DOI:10.1111/j.1757-837X.2009.00009.x. Publication link: 865f7d46-1f0f-45b8-b77e-178ad4e16281
  • Kummeling, I., Mills, E. N. C., Clausen, M., Dubakiene, R., Pérez, C. F., Fernández-Rivas, M., ... Burney, P. (2009). The EuroPrevall surveys on the prevalence of food allergies in children and adults: Background and study methodology. Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 64(10), 1493-1497. DOI:10.1111/j.1398-9995.2009.02046.x. Publication link: 56849b4d-72a4-44c9-895b-ec134afb3ba9 | PubMed:19385958
  • MacIerzanka, A., Sancho, A. I., Mills, E. N. C., Rigby, N. M., & MacKie, A. R. (2009). Emulsification alters simulated gastrointestinal proteolysis of β-casein and β-lactoglobulin. Soft Matter, 5(3), 538-550. DOI:10.1039/b811233a. Publication link: 3086f43e-8dda-477c-80c0-8e94c7b7b40b
  • Madsen, C. B., Hattersley, S., Buck, J., Gendel, S. M., Houben, G. F., Hourihane, J. O. B., ... Crevel, R. W. R. (2009). Approaches to risk assessment in food allergy: Report from a workshop ''developing a framework for assessing the risk from allergenic foods". Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(2), 480-489. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2008.12.001. Publication link: 32ff9178-d2da-46e3-b724-ec7d64bf88ab
  • Mandalari, G., Adel-Patient, K., Barkholt, V., Baro, C., Bennett, L., Bublin, M., ... Mills, E. N. C. (2009). In vitro digestibility of β-casein and β-lactoglobulin under simulated human gastric and duodenal conditions: A multi-laboratory evaluation. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 55(3), 372-381. DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2009.08.010. Publication link: 428fd7c8-8892-4a1e-a0a8-f95cb338871a | PubMed:19723552
  • Mandalari, G., Mackie, A. M., Rigby, N. M., Wickham, M. S. J., & Mills, E. N. C. (2009). Physiological phosphatidylcholine protects bovine β-lactoglobulin from simulated gastrointestinal proteolysis. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 53(1), S131-S139. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200800321. Publication link: 34c1c322-3d04-41dd-bd8f-1cdfba2166c9 | PubMed:19415669
  • Mills, C., Clare Mills, E. N., Sancho, A. I., Rigby, N. M., Jenkins, J. A., & Mackie, A. R. (2009). Impact of food processing on the structural and allergenic properties of food allergens. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 53(8), 963-969. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200800236. Publication link: 194a1b24-0df6-4cf1-a173-641b6ab4f12c | PubMed:19603402
  • Mills, E. N. C., Gao, C., Wilde, P. J., Rigby, N. M., Wijesinha-Bettoni, R., Johnson, V. E., ... Mackie, A. R. (2009). Partially folded forms of barley lipid transfer protein are more surface active. Biochemistry, 48(51), 12081-12088. DOI:10.1021/bi901328f. Publication link: 8661bc69-aa4f-4769-96d3-20b1d2511f89
  • Poms, R., Thomas, M., Finglas, P., Astley, S., Spichtinger, D., Rose, M., ... Gross, M. (2009). MoniQA(Monitoring and Quality Assurance): an EU-funded Network of Excellence working towards the harmonization of worldwide food quality and safety monitoring and control strategies-status report 2008. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods, 1(1), 9-22. DOI:10.1111/j.1757-837X.2009.00004.x. Publication link: 1e582ac6-2b0e-4b87-b0de-03b01dc2fafe
  • Shewry, P. R., Underwood, C., Wan, Y., Lovegrove, A., Bhandari, D., Toole, G., ... Mitchell, R. A. C. (2009). Storage product synthesis and accumulation in developing grains of wheat. Journal of Cereal Science, 50(1), 106-112. DOI:10.1016/j.jcs.2009.03.009. Publication link: d6c73e7b-e111-4fcf-b81e-b9c29916e98a
  • Toole, G. A., Barron, C., Le Gall, G., Colquhoun, I. J., Shewry, P. R., & Mills, E. N. C. (2009). Remodelling of arabinoxylan in wheat (Triticum aestivum) endosperm cell walls during grain filling. Planta, 229(3), 667-680. DOI:10.1007/s00425-008-0865-3. Publication link: fe9c9b3e-38d6-4915-99f8-0827ec439a85 | PubMed:19066942
  • Wan, Y., Underwood, C., Toole, G., Skeggs, P., Zhu, T., Leverington, M., ... Shewry, P. R. (2009). A novel transcriptomic approach to identify candidate genes for grain quality traits in wheat. Plant Biotechnology Journal, 7(5), 401-410. DOI:10.1111/j.1467-7652.2009.00405.x. Publication link: afb431fa-5688-4b47-93e1-32584ae0c5e0 | PubMed:19490503
  • Wickham, M., Faulks, R., & Mills, C. (2009). In vitro digestion methods for assessing the effect of food structure on allergen breakdown. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 53(8), 952-958. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200800193. Publication link: 44a37c40-b986-4f54-a1d4-c2fdf43e824a | PubMed:19603399


  • Bublin, M., Radauer, C., Knulst, A., Wagner, S., Scheiner, O., Mackie, A. R., ... Breiteneder, H. (2008). Effects of gastrointestinal digestion and heating on the allergenicity of the kiwi allergens Act d 1, actinidin, and Act d 2, a thaumatin-like protein. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 52(10), 1130-1139. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200700167. Publication link: d3b1855e-5967-4ee5-9468-8ff6aa8154cc | PubMed:18655003
  • Gao, C., Wijesinha-Bettoni, R., Wilde, P. J., Mills, E. N. C., Smith, L. J., & Mackie, A. R. (2008). Surface properties are highly sensitive to small pH induced changes in the 3-D structure of α-lactalbumin. Biochemistry, 47(6), 1659-1666. DOI:10.1021/bi700999r. Publication link: af87105a-68b9-4cb4-952b-6139cc3e0d99 | PubMed:18201101
  • Herouet-Guicheney, C., Ladics, G., Mills, C., & Privalle, L. (2008). Evaluating the effect of food processing on the potential human allergenicity of novel proteins: Summary from a recent workshop. Toxicology Letters, 180, S12-S12. DOI:10.1016/j.toxlet.2008.06.817. Publication link: 2198ad5e-f7ef-48d7-aa5c-392c0e96f00e
  • Hoffmann-Sommergruber, K., Mills, E. N. C., & Vieths, S. (2008). Coordinated and standardized production, purification and characterization of natural and recombinant food allergens to establish a food allergen library. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 52(2), S159-S165. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200800466. Publication link: 6856e04b-6e8b-4377-a037-eb80b033a276 | PubMed:19031434
  • Mills, C., Rigby, N. M., Marsh, J., Sancho, A. I., Wellner, K., Akkerdaas, J., ... Mills, E. N. C. (2008). The purification and characterisation of allergenic hazelnut seed proteins. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 52(2), S251-S261. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200800083. Publication link: 3776c03d-6aa1-437c-91a0-986b0c10ea33 | PubMed:19006093
  • Mills, C., Troncone, R., Ivarsson, A., Szajewska, H., & Mearin, M. L. (2008). Review article: Future research on coeliac disease - A position report from the European multistakeholder platform on coeliac disease (CDEUSSA). Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 27(11), 1030-1043. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2008.03668.x. Publication link: b47bee96-d243-47c6-8c49-33e0856aa21e | PubMed:18315588
  • Mills, E. N. C., & Mackie, A. R. (2008). The impact of processing on allergenicity of food. Current opinion in allergy and clinical immunology, 8(3), 249-253. DOI:10.1097/ACI.0b013e3282ffb123. Publication link: 3cf4ea46-d0f7-4d47-990b-5f7acd92c584 | PubMed:18560301
  • Oberhuber, C., Ma, Y., Marsh, J., Rigby, N., Smole, U., Radauer, C., ... Bublin, M. (2008). Purification and characterisation of relevant natural and recombinant apple allergens. Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 52(2), S208-S219. DOI:10.1002/mnfr.200700522. Publication link: f3bd79a2-61d8-480d-9e41-8ec0c4bbc6e5 | PubMed:18683825
  • Pappa, E. C., Robertson, J. A., Rigby, N. M., Mellon, F., Kandarakis, I., & Mills, E. N. C. (2008). Application of proteomic techniques to protein and peptide profiling of Teleme cheese made from different types of milk. International Dairy Journal, 18(6), 605-614. DOI:10.1016/j.idairyj.2007.11.020. Publication link: 4704f4c9-9f5c-4076-a278-48abd641b19d
  • Sancho, A. I., Gillabert, M., Tapp, H., Shewry, P. R., Skeggs, P. K., & Mills, E. N. C. (2008). Effect of environmental stress during grain filling on the soluble proteome of wheat (Triticum aestivum) dough liquor. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(13), 5386-5393. DOI:10.1021/jf800209b. Publication link: 2adb097e-c761-4e63-9c31-3d1ea42303d9 | PubMed:18553920
  • Sancho, A. I., Van Ree, R., Van Leeuwen, A., Meulenbroek, B. J., Van De Weg, E. W., Gilissen, L. J. W. J., ... Zuidmeer, L. (2008). Measurement of lipid transfer protein in 88 apple cultivars. International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 146(1), 19-26. DOI:10.1159/000112499. Publication link: 24bbefb5-9feb-4c6c-a990-e91ee78b623d | PubMed:18087158
  • Vieths, S., Reese, G., Ballmer-Weber, B. K., Beyer, K., Burney, P., Fernandez-Rivas, M., ... Mills, C. (2008). The serum bank of EuroPrevall - The prevalence, cost and basis of food allergy across Europe. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(10), S12-S14. DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2008.07.020. Publication link: 9aa569be-1473-4000-8fa0-4300aabf38c4


  • Jenkins, J. A., Griffiths-Jones, S., Shewry, P. R., Breiteneder, H., & Mills, E. N. C. (2005). Structural relatedness of plant food allergens with specific reference to cross-reactive allergens: An in silico analysis. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 115(1), 163-170. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2004.10.026. Publication link: 1fab3329-0b95-4e6c-98c4-2879b0c2f0e2 | PubMed:15637564