Professor Ralf Paus

Photograph of Ralf Paus

Professor of Cutaneous Medicine, University of Manchester and Professor of Dermatology and Experimental Dermatology, University of Luebeck

  Professor of Cutaneous Medicine
  Dermatological Sciences Research Group
  School of Translational Medicine
  University of Manchester
  Stopford Building
  Oxford Road
  Manchester M13 9PL


Professor Ralf Paus researches into hair disorders, skin neuroendocrinology,  and the science and applications of stem cells residing in the skin.


Ralf researches into the biology and pathology of the hair follicle as a microcosmic miniorgan in which many of the fundamental problems of biology can be studied exemplarily. Currently, he is most intrigued by the astounding neuroendocrine properties of the human hair follicle, their impact on mitochondrial function and hair follicle immune status, and the use ofadult stem cells populations associated with human skin appendages for regenerative medicine pursposes. 

Ralf's particular interest is in:

  • better defining and in manipulating various neuroendocrine pathways established in the human hair follicle (HPA and HPT axis equivalent systems) and in elucidating novel functions of this neuroendocrine activity
  • neuroendocrine controls of mitochondrial activity and biogenesis in human skin
  • understanding the controls and functions of hair follicle immune privilege and its disorders that lead to alopecia areata or scarring alopecia
  • characterizing, selectively labelling, isolating and differentiating various stem cells populations associated with human scalp skin and its appendages
  • role of clock genes in human growth control

Methodologically, Ralf employs mainly human hair follicle and scalp skin organ culture, K15-GFP+ human epithelial hair follicle stem cells, and immunohistology/immunofluorescence, and analyzes the hair and skin phenotype of relevant mouse mutants.


After his medical studies at the Unversities of Wuerzburg, Berlin and Vienna, MD thesis work at the University of South Florida, Tampa, USA, and an internship at the University Hospitals of Basle and Zurich, Switzerland, Ralf graduated from the Free University of Berlin (1987).

Following post-doctoral research at Yale University (1987-90), Ralf trained as a clinical dermatologist in Berlin, where he became consultant dermatologist and junior faculty at the Charité University Hospital. From 1999-2004 Ralf served as Professor and Vice-Chair of the Dept. of Dermatology, University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, University of Hamburg. He was Visiting Scholar at the University of California, San Diego (1992), Visiting Professor at the Dept. of Molecular Medicine at the Max-Planck-Institute for Biochemistry, Munich-Martinsried (2005), and Honorary Visiting Professor at the University of Bradford until 2010 and again since 2012.

After taking up  his current position as Head of Experimental Dermatology, Dept. of Dermatology, University of Luebeck, Germany (2005), Ralf  joined the University of Manchester in 2008 as Professor of Cutaneous Medicine).

Ralf has been Editor of Experimental Dermatology since 2007.

Collaborators and affiliated staff

Professor Enrique Amaya - The Healing Foundation, University of Manchester



  • Dahlhoff, M., Camera, E., Schäfer, M., Riethmacher, D., Foster, A., Paus, R., & Schneider, M. R. (2016). Sebaceous lipids are essential for water repulsion, protection against UVB-induced apoptosis and ocular integrity in mice. Development, 143(10), 1823-1831. DOI:10.1242/dev.132753. Publication link: de1c366e-04ae-4580-935d-512027b7394e
  • Fleger-Weckmann, A., Üstün, Y., Kloepper, J., Paus, R., Bloch, W., Chen, Z. L., ... Nischt, R. (2016). Deletion of the epidermis derived laminin γ1 chain leads to defects in the regulation of late hair morphogenesis. Matrix Biology. DOI:10.1016/j.matbio.2016.05.002. Publication link: 3c6b91dd-35df-4fb4-93fe-244cd6e1f5f7
  • Garcin, C. L., Ansell, D. M., Headon, D. J., Paus, R., & Hardman, M. J. (2016). Hair Follicle Bulge Stem Cells Appear Dispensable for the Acute Phase of Wound Re-epithelialization. Stem Cells, 34(5), 1377-85. DOI:10.1002/stem.2289. Publication link: 66303e56-b48f-47e9-91ef-92425b260ab3 | PubMed:26756547
  • Gilhar, A., Schrum, A. G., Etzioni, A., Waldmann, H., & Paus, R. (2016). Alopecia areata: Animal models illuminate autoimmune pathogenesis and novel immunotherapeutic strategies. Autoimmunity Reviews, 15(7), 726-735. DOI:10.1016/j.autrev.2016.03.008. Publication link: 4e61f985-0341-42de-acb2-bdf1c3eafe3e
  • Oláh, A., Gherardini, J., Bertolini, M., Cheret, J., Kloepper, J. E., Bíró, T., ... Paus, R. (2016). The Thyroid Hormone Analogue KB2115 (Eprotirome) Prolongs Human Hair Growth (Anagen) Ex Vivo. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 136(8), 1711-1744. DOI:10.1016/j.jid.2016.03.033. Publication link: 8fcafa56-206d-4bc2-901f-895c8f9aebb8
  • Purba, T., Brunken, L., Hawkshaw, N., Hardman, J., & Paus, R. (2016). A Primer for Studying Cell Cycle Dynamics of the Human Hair Follicle. Experimental Dermatology (Online). DOI:10.1111/exd.13046. Publication link: d721a197-734f-4382-9971-837f4856375f
  • Tsai, T., Veitinger, S., Peek, I., Busse, D., Eckardt, J., Vladimirova, . D., ... Hatt, H. (2016). Two olfactory receptors -OR2A4/7 and OR51B5- differentially affect epidermal proliferation and differentiation. Experimental Dermatology. . Publication link: 90825354-f96c-4168-a216-21fc7afa35b1


  • Hawkshaw, N. J., Haslam, I. S., Ansell, D. M., Shamalak, A., & Paus, R. (2015). Re-Evaluating Cyclosporine A as a Hair Growth-Promoting Agent in Human Scalp Hair Follicles. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 135(8), 2129-32. DOI:10.1038/jid.2015.121. Publication link: e9e00b13-c9e5-4259-8ee5-c36ca4471bbc | PubMed:25826423


  • Al-Nuaimi, Y., Hardman, J. A., Bíró, T., Haslam, I. S., Philpott, M. P., Tóth, B. I., ... Paus, R. (2014). A meeting of two chronobiological systems: Circadian proteins period1 and bmal1 modulate the human hair cycle clock. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 134(3), 610-619. DOI:10.1038/jid.2013.366. Publication link: 5880be05-8426-4cdf-8db4-c0b9d761b7ce
  • Bertolini, M., Zilio, F., Rossi, A., Kleditzsch, P., Emelianov, V. E., Gilhar, A., ... Paus, R. (2014). Abnormal interactions between perifollicular mast cells and CD8+ T-cells may contribute to the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. PLoS ONE, 9(5), [e94260]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094260. Publication link: 516fa36b-c472-4915-9f46-ffb8fcce8edd
  • Bundy, C., Chiang, Y. Z., Griffiths, C. E. M., Paus, R., Harries, M. J., Z, C. Y., ... J, H. M. (2014). The role of beliefs: Lessons from a pilot study on illness perception, psychological distress, and quality of life in patients with primary cicatricial alopecia. British Journal of Dermatology, 172(1). DOI:10.1111/bjd.13259. Publication link: b4f105b8-985a-40ed-96e3-c83823bb4f01 | PubMed:25039441
  • Busse, D., Kudella, P., Grüning, N. M., Gisselmann, G., Ständer, S., Luger, T., ... Benecke, H. (2014). A Synthetic Sandalwood Odorant Induces Wound-Healing Processes in Human Keratinocytes via the Olfactory Receptor OR2AT4. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. DOI:10.1038/jid.2014.273. Publication link: aaaf8e3f-9b61-4ca8-b096-4ef5aab3fd1d
  • Dahlhoff, M., Frances, D., Kloepper, J. E., Paus, R., Schäfer, M., Niemann, C., & Schneider, M. R. (2014). Overexpression of epigen during embryonic development induces reversible, epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent sebaceous gland hyperplasia. Molecular and Cellular Biology, 34(16), 3086-3095. DOI:10.1128/MCB.00302-14. Publication link: f2464300-f6b9-4b51-b0af-e1345cc22806
  • Haslam, I. S., Hardman, J. A., Tobin, D. J., Farjo, N., Farjo, B., Al-Nuaimi, Y., ... Paus, R. (2014). The Peripheral Clock Regulates Human Pigmentation.The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. DOI:10.1038/jid.2014.442. Publication link: 1934bdfd-71a9-4eb7-9310-264f3b82db4d
  • Haslam, I. S., Roubos, E. W., Mangoni, M. L., Yoshizato, K., Vaudry, H., Kloepper, J. E., ... Paus, R. (2014). From frog integument to human skin: Dermatological perspectives from frog skin biology. Biological Reviews, 89(3), 618-655. DOI:10.1111/brv.12072. Publication link: 615cb9e7-4a54-4ff7-ac8f-6865e7121a24
  • Haslam, I., Kloepper, J. E., Ernst, N., Krieger, K., Bodó, E., Bíró, T., ... Paus, R. (2014). NF-κB activity is required for anagen maintenance in human hair follicles in vitro. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 134(7), 2036-2038. DOI:10.1038/jid.2014.82. Publication link: db6bd69a-9b90-401d-9d39-ec7277c270a1
  • Oláh, A., Tóth, B. I., Borbíró, I., Sugawara, K., Szöllõsi, A. G., Czifra, G., ... Bíró, T. (2014). Cannabidiol exerts sebostatic and antiinflammatory effects on human sebocytes. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 124(9), 3713-3724. DOI:10.1172/JCI64628. Publication link: 65670047-badd-46c4-9d27-f1b5416f8a29
  • Paus, R., & Schneider, M. R. (2014). Deciphering the functions of the hair follicle infundibulum in skin physiology and disease.Unknown Journal. . Publication link: 1f90fd12-f7fa-416a-b67e-a27c41b64c1a
  • Paus, R., Böhm, M., Bodó, E., & Funk, W. (2014). α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone: a protective peptide against chemotherapy-induced hair follicle damage?. British Journal of Dermatology, 170(4), 956-960. DOI:10.1111/bjd.12759. Publication link: d05de5f2-cd4e-426e-8867-f21de2bc9d48
  • Paus, R., Chen, J., Laclef, C., Moncayo, A., Snedecor, E. R., Yang, N., ... Clark, R. A. (2014). The Ciliopathy Gene Rpgrip1l Is Essential For Hair Follicle Development. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. DOI:10.1038/jid.2014.483. Publication link: 0e9df54d-a456-45b6-b1f8-dfd5a061d7c2
  • Paus, R., Fischer, T. W., Herczeg-Lisztes, E., Funk, W., Zillikens, D., & Bíró, T. (2014). Differential effects of caffeine on hair shaft elongation, matrix and outer root sheath keratinocyte proliferation, and TGF-β2-/IGF-1-mediated regulation of hair cycle in male and female human hair follicles in vitro.British Journal of Dermatology. DOI:doi: 10.1111/bjd.13114. Publication link: cb8f637f-e19c-4796-b108-6f8f993dceb0
  • Paus, R., Geyfman, M., Plikus, M. V., Treffeisen, E., & Andersen, B. (2014). Resting no more: re-defining telogen, the maintenance stage of the hair growth cycle. Biology Bulletin Reviews. DOI:10.1111/brv.12151. Publication link: 184aceb0-876b-490f-ab8c-66adedbbc54d
  • Paus, R., Kloepper, J. E., Baris, O. R., Reuter, K., Kobayashi, K., Weiland, D., ... Wiesner, R. J. (2014). Mitochondrial Function in Murine Skin Epithelium is Crucial for Hair Follicle Morphogenesis and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Interactions. The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. DOI:10.1038/jid.2014.475. Publication link: 514369d4-3b86-467e-aa3e-df1d70fe8743
  • Paus, R., Langan, E. A., Vidali, S., Ramot, Y., & Andersen, B. (2014). Neuroendocrinology of the hair follicle: principles and clinical perspectives. Trends in Molecular Medicine. DOI:10.1016/j.molmed.2014.06.002. Publication link: 7992f16b-ff88-4a8a-a1b2-45b5097908b9
  • Paus, R., Wang, M., Yue, Z., & Ramot, Y. (2014). SIRT2 as a new player in epigenetic programming of keratinocyte differentiation and a candidate tumor suppressor. Experimental Dermatology (Online), 23(9), 636. DOI:10.1111/exd.12434. Publication link: cecfb59a-a8d5-4f7c-95a0-3efbb1a404e7
  • Paus, R., Xie, G., Wang, H., Yan, Z., Cai, L., Zhou, G., ... Yue, Z. (2014). Testing Chemotherapeutic Agents in the Feather Follicle Identifies a Selective Blockade of Cell Proliferation and a Key Role for Sonic Hedgehog Signaling in Chemotherapy-Induced Tissue Damage. Unknown Journal. DOI:10.1038/jid.2014.409. Publication link: a3c215fa-e2e0-4509-a0e8-6189bb5b9efb
  • Purba, T. S., Haslam, I. S., Poblet, E., Jiménez, F., Gandarillas, A., Izeta, A., & Paus, R. (2014). Human epithelial hair follicle stem cells and their progeny: Current state of knowledge, the widening gap in translational research and future challenges. BioEssays, 36(5), 513-525. DOI:10.1002/bies.201300166. Publication link: a82bdfb7-cedd-4f1c-994f-253d61d99dde
  • Ramot, Y., & Paus, R. (2014). Harnessing neuroendocrine controls of keratin expression: A new therapeutic strategy for skin diseases?. BioEssays, 36(7), 672-686. DOI:10.1002/bies.201400006. Publication link: a39dac89-0746-4b16-bb9a-fc384aba47a4
  • Ramot, Y., Mastrofrancesco, A., Herczeg-Lisztes, E., Bíró, T., Picardo, M., Kloepper, J. E., & Paus, R. (2014). Advanced inhibition of undesired human hair growth by pparγ modulation?. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 134(4), 1128-1131. DOI:10.1038/jid.2013.473. Publication link: 403f1166-5b3a-49f4-9e56-b2a650f4e665
  • Rendl, M., Sundberg, J., Seykora, J., Luger, T., Paus, R., & Trier-Mork, T. (2014). Launch of the new letter category: 'Mouse Mutants with Absent/Minimal Skin Phenotype'. Experimental Dermatology, 23(10), 691. DOI:10.1111/exd.12307. Publication link: 5a577a4f-b4b1-4a1b-9643-221a664e25c7
  • Vidali, S., Knuever, J., Lerchner, J., Giesen, M., Bíró, T., Klinger, M., ... Paus, R. (2014). Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis hormones stimulate mitochondrial function and biogenesis in human hair follicles. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 134(1), 33-42. DOI:10.1038/jid.2013.286. Publication link: d08ad642-f2d5-44bb-be87-3ab9e802cfa2


  • Bertolini, M., Meyer, K. C., Slominski, R., Kobayashi, K., Ludwig, R. J., & Paus, R. (2013). The immune system of mouse vibrissae follicles: Cellular composition and indications of immune privilege. Experimental Dermatology, 22(9), 593-598. DOI:10.1111/exd.12205. Publication link: 1f2f016c-6547-46ea-917f-1b0952f4ba72
  • Duque-Estrada, B., Tosti, A., Mcelwee, K. J., Gilhar, A., Keren, A., Bertolini, M., ... Itami, S. (2013). What causes alopecia areata?: Section Editors: Ralf Paus, Manchester/Lübeck and Raymond Cho, San Francisco Controversies in Experimental Dermatology: What causes alopecia areata?. Experimental Dermatology, 22(9), 609-626. DOI:10.1111/exd.12209. Publication link: bd79182d-ffe5-4517-8e89-f9328e338239
  • Ernst, N., Yay, A., Bíró, T., Tiede, S., Humphries, M., Paus, R., & Kloepper, J. E. (2013). β1 integrin signaling maintains human epithelial progenitor cell survival in situ and controls proliferation, apoptosis and migration of their progeny. PLoS ONE, 8(12), [e84356]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0084356. Publication link: 2bf0a17c-7f28-49c7-a363-5ddd30f0dfc1
  • Gilhar, A., Keren, A., & Paus, R. (2013). A new humanized mouse model for alopecia areata.The journal of investigative dermatology. Symposium proceedings / the Society for Investigative Dermatology, Inc. [and] European Society for Dermatological Research, 16(1), S37-38. DOI:10.1038/jidsymp.2013.11. Publication link: 5bcd3481-ad2d-409d-a222-d9d4d467bc64
  • Gilhar, A., Keren, A., Shemer, A., D'Ovidio, R., Ullmann, Y., & Paus, R. (2013). Autoimmune disease induction in a healthy human organ: A humanized mouse model of alopecia areata. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 133(3), 844-847. DOI:10.1038/jid.2012.365. Publication link: da756b57-d5c2-4d5f-b0d8-0bf133e7301a
  • Gilhar, A., Keren, A., Shemer, A., Ullmann, Y., & Paus, R. (2013). Blocking potassium channels (Kv1.3): A new treatment option for alopecia areata?. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 133(8), 2088-2091. DOI:10.1038/jid.2013.141. Publication link: cc2ed203-c5bb-4e13-80ef-7a2fa9702312
  • Harries, M. J., Meyer, K., Chaudhry, I., E Kloepper, J., Poblet, E., Griffiths, C. E. M., & Paus, R. (2013). Lichen planopilaris is characterized by immune privilege collapse of the hair follicle's epithelial stem cell niche. Journal of Pathology, 231(2), 236-247. DOI:10.1002/path.4233. Publication link: 3490f078-b943-4aa4-85b4-75bafcc92c8d | PubMed:23788005
  • Haslam, I. S., Pitre, A., Schuetz, J. D., & Paus, R. (2013). Protection against chemotherapy-induced alopecia: Targeting ATP-binding cassette transporters in the hair follicle?. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 34(11), 599-604. DOI:10.1016/ Publication link: 1759efbf-6095-4495-828c-a7de18dae5ca
  • Hinde, E., Haslam, I. S., Schneider, M. R., Langan, E. A., Kloepper, J. E., Schramm, C., ... Paus, R. (2013). A practical guide for the study of human and murine sebaceous glands in situ. Experimental Dermatology (Online), 22(10), 631-637. DOI:10.1111/exd.12207. Publication link: c031fa9a-900a-4045-9af8-afea38e679f3
  • Ito, T., Bertolini, M., Funakoshi, A., Ito, N., Takayama, T., Biro, T., ... Tokura, Y. (2013). Birth, life, and death of the MAGE3 hypothesis of alopecia areata pathobiology. Journal of Dermatological Science, 72(3), 327-330. DOI:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2013.07.014. Publication link: 2c3a7fff-f180-41ec-a9f3-dba96da13f2f
  • Kloepper, J. E., Kawai, K., Bertolini, M., Kanekura, T., & Paus, R. (2013). Loss of γδ t cells results in hair cycling defects. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 133(6), 1666-1669. DOI:10.1038/jid.2013.17. Publication link: a3c9f011-eb84-4ee2-ae19-e9ca9fc84405 | PubMed:23334345
  • Langan, E. A., Lisztes, E., Bíro, T., Funk, W., Kloepper, J. E., Griffiths, C. E. M., & Paus, R. (2013). Dopamine is a novel, direct inducer of catagen in human scalp hair follicles in vitro. British Journal of Dermatology, 168(3), 520-525. DOI:10.1111/bjd.12113. Publication link: a5cd7f75-fae6-408e-8715-36056771216b | PubMed:23176199
  • Langan, E. A., Vidali, S., Pigat, N., Funk, W., Lisztes, E., Bíró, T., ... Paus, R. (2013). Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha, Interferon Gamma and Substance P Are Novel Modulators of Extrapituitary Prolactin Expression in Human Skin. PLoS ONE, 8(4), [e60819]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0060819. Publication link: 4a1ccc0f-7879-43f4-912e-3992a75f859a | PubMed:23626671
  • Meier, N. T., Haslam, I., Pattwell, D. M., Zhang, G. Y., Emelianov, V., Paredes, R., ... Paus, R. (2013). Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) promotes wound re-epithelialisation in frog and human skin.PLoS ONE, 8(9), [e73596]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0073596. Publication link: 594e6cfe-74ab-4886-b6c4-d0df4e87aeb5 | PubMed:24023889
  • Nakamura, M., Schneider, M. R., Schmidt-Ullrich, R., & Paus, R. (2013). Mutant laboratory mice with abnormalities in hair follicle morphogenesis, cycling, and/or structure: An update. Journal of Dermatological Science, 69(1), 6-29. DOI:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2012.10.001. Publication link: 7551b52d-2fc1-4f38-8d60-ca7f7ea60164 | PubMed:23165165
  • Paus, R. (2013). Migrating melanocyte stem cells: Masters of disaster?. Nature Medicine, 19(7), 818-819. DOI:10.1038/nm.3264. Publication link: af23d7ce-dd12-4c6b-ab13-7f5d8c512c52
  • Paus, R., & Bertolini, M. (2013). The role of hair follicle immune privilege collapse in alopecia areata: status and perspectives.The journal of investigative dermatology. Symposium proceedings / the Society for Investigative Dermatology, Inc. [and] European Society for Dermatological Research, 16(1), S25-27. DOI:10.1038/jidsymp.2013.7. Publication link: 850b0e27-753f-47a8-b62d-92ebdf741af6
  • Paus, R., De Paus, R. A., Geilenkirchen, M. A., Van Riet, S., Van Dissel, J. T., & Van De Vosse, E. (2013). Differential expression and function of human IL-12Rβ2 polymorphic variants. Molecular Immunology, 56(4), 380-389. DOI:10.1016/j.molimm.2013.07.002. Publication link: 94b25899-5f38-4016-8dce-7a058b627e83
  • Paus, R., De Paus, R. A., Van Crevel, R., Van Beek, R., Sahiratmadja, E., Alisjahbana, B., ... Van De Vosse, E. (2013). The influence of influenza virus infections on the development of tuberculosis. Tuberculosis, 93(3), 338-342. DOI:10.1016/ Publication link: 95b2b1d2-5dfa-41d5-908d-adf0a9e2757e
  • Paus, R., de Paus, R. A., van Wengen, A., Schmidt, I., Visser, M., Verdegaal, E. M. E., ... van de Vosse, E. (2013). Inhibition of the type I immune responses of human monocytes by IFN-α and IFN-β. Cytokine, 61(2), 645-655. DOI:10.1016/j.cyto.2012.12.005. Publication link: 4f68c5ea-d59b-4542-b958-206345687ad5
  • Paus, R., Haslam, I. S., Sharov, A. A., & Botchkarev, V. A. (2013). Pathobiology of chemotherapy-induced hair loss. Lancet Oncology, 14(2), e50-e59. DOI:10.1016/S1470-2045(12)70553-3. Publication link: f3822393-14c4-4f6c-a63d-74ae2d987bb7 | PubMed:23369683
  • Paus, R., van de Vosse, E., Haverkamp, M. H., Ramirez-Alejo, N., Martinez-Gallo, M., Blancas-Galicia, L., ... Bustamante, J. (2013). IL-12Rβ1 deficiency: Mutation update and description of the IL12RB1 variation database. Human Mutation, 34(10), 1329-1339. DOI:10.1002/humu.22380. Publication link: ffb2a48c-68c0-45db-98d9-8f6320cabc42
  • Rakers, S., Niklasson, L., Steinhagen, D., Kruse, C., Schauber, J., Sundell, K., & Paus, R. (2013). Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from fish epidermis: Perspectives for investigative dermatology. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 133(5), 1140-1149. DOI:10.1038/jid.2012.503. Publication link: bbfc1b66-e34f-47dc-af29-d88898cfd00b | PubMed:23407389
  • Ramot, Y., Sugawara, K., Zákány, N., Tóth, B. I., Bíró, T., & Paus, R. (2013). A novel control of human keratin expression: Cannabinoid receptor 1-mediated signaling down-regulates the expression of keratins K6 and K16 in human keratinocytes in vitro and in situ. PeerJ, 2013(1), [e40]. DOI:10.7717/peerj.40. Publication link: 47f58b08-0573-496c-9bc2-3d15e9922611
  • Ramot, Y., Zhang, G., Bírõ, T., Langbein, L., & Paus, R. (2013). Is thyrotropin-releasing hormone a novel neuroendocrine modulator of keratin expression in human skin?. British Journal of Dermatology, 169(1), 146-151. DOI:10.1111/bjd.12264. Publication link: c8971ccc-01d1-46c5-8f8d-a4cfd7e640ef | PubMed:23373458
  • Samuelov, L., Sprecher, E., Sugawara, K., Singh, S. K., Tobin, D. J., Tsuruta, D., ... Paus, R. (2013). Topobiology of human pigmentation: P-cadherin selectively stimulates hair follicle melanogenesis. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 133(6), 1591-1600. DOI:10.1038/jid.2013.18. Publication link: eb37c9bd-1e1d-4396-b9a5-241387d9ef87 | PubMed:23334344
  • Sugawara, K., Zákány, N., Hundt, T., Emelianov, V., Tsuruta, D., Schäfer, C., ... Paus, R. (2013). Cannabinoid receptor 1 controls human mucosal-type mast cell degranulation and maturation in situ. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 132(1), 182-e8. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2013.01.002. Publication link: ef7639e2-195e-4bf4-a573-b02fd1768650 | PubMed:23453134
  • Syed, F., Bagabir, R. A., Paus, R., & Bayat, A. (2013). Ex vivo evaluation of antifibrotic compounds in skin scarring: EGCG and silencing of PAI-1 independently inhibit growth and induce keloid shrinkage. Laboratory Investigation, 93(8), 946-960. DOI:10.1038/labinvest.2013.82. Publication link: 3f942f4e-d018-4dcc-bbba-ac3c39d7f26f



  • Al-Nuaimi, Y., Kloepper, J., Watson, R. E. B., & Paus, R. (2011). Towards deciphering a gene signature of anagen vs catagen in human hair follicles. British Journal of Dermatology, 164(4), 930-930. . Publication link: 48dc68a7-3933-412a-a502-19fe6c02a253
  • Al-Nuaimi, Y., Paus, R., & Baier, G. (2011). Controlled switching between states of epithelial proliferation and apoptosis in a mathematical model of the human hair cycle. British Journal of Dermatology, 164(4), 915-915. . Publication link: b7bad1c5-a574-4ad5-b79a-c602a5555755
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  • Kloepper, J. E., Tiede, S., Brinckmann, J., Reinhardt, D. P., Meyer, W., Faessler, R., & Paus, R. (2008). Immunophenotyping of the human bulge region: The quest to define useful in situ markers for human epithelial hair follicle stem cells and their niche. Experimental Dermatology, 17(7), 592-609. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2008.00720.x. Publication link: 1dd5c648-8f54-438f-a8d5-ff46028657f0
  • Meyer, K. C., Klatte, J. E., Dinh, H. V., Harries, M. J., Reithmayer, K., Meyer, W., ... Paus, R. (2008). Evidence that the bulge region is a site of relative immune privilege in human hair follicles. British Journal of Dermatology, 159(5), 1077-1085. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2008.08818.x. Publication link: 2b9c6322-3d75-41b4-992f-abea91119602
  • Paus, R., Arck, P., & Tiede, S. (2008). (Neuro-)endocrinology of epithelial hair follicle stem cells. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 288(1-2), 38-51. DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2008.02.023. Publication link: f305c327-edd0-4376-9d69-9c2c78bce763
  • Plonka, P. M., Michalczyk, D., Popik, M., Handjiski, B., & Paus, R. (2008). Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy for investigating murine telogen skin after spontaneous or depilation-induced hair growth. Journal of Dermatological Science, 49(3), 227-240. DOI:10.1016/j.jdermsci.2007.09.010. Publication link: 63e3a26e-c3f6-458c-a3f0-8555abddcb11 | PubMed:18061408
  • Schallreuter, K. U., Bahadoran, P., Picardo, M., Slominski, A., Elassiuty, Y. E., Kemp, E. H., ... Westerof, W. (2008). Vitiligo pathogenesis: Autoimmune disease, genetic defect, excessive reactive oxygen species, calcium imbalance, or what else?. Experimental Dermatology, 17(2), 139-140. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2007.00666_1.x. Publication link: 64342bf2-2ae4-4e1e-b89e-8e95236e4651
  • Schneider, M. R., Antsiferova, M., Feldmeyer, L., Dahlhoff, M., Bugnon, P., Hasse, S., ... Werner, S. (2008). Betacellulin regulates hair follicle development and hair cycle induction and enhances angiogenesis in wounded skin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 128(5), 1256-1265. DOI:10.1038/sj.jid.5701135. Publication link: 48b9a8fe-845e-4560-af65-c4a9424cb35f
  • Schneider, M. R., Werner, S., Paus, R., & Wolf, E. (2008). Beyond wavy hairs: The epidermal growth factor receptor and its ligands in skin biology and pathology. American Journal of Pathology, 173(1), 14-24. DOI:10.2353/ajpath.2008.070942. Publication link: 7234a036-aa46-4f52-83a9-39693937acd3
  • Semenova, E., Koegel, H., Hasse, S., Klatte, J. E., Slonimsky, E., Bilbao, D., ... Rosenthal, N. (2008). Overexpression of mIGF-1 in keratinocytes improves wound healing and accelerates hair follicle formation and cycling in mice. American Journal of Pathology, 173(5), 1295-1310. DOI:10.2353/ajpath.2008.071177. Publication link: b9bf741a-6edb-4c87-b8ce-fd4ba36fb5ec
  • Slominski, A., Tobin, D. J., Zmijewski, M. A., Wortsman, J., & Paus, R. (2008). Melatonin in the skin: synthesis, metabolism and functions.Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism, 19(1), 17-24. DOI:10.1016/j.tem.2007.10.007. Publication link: bce9e6b9-e255-44bd-a69d-01ed5a34154f | PubMed:18155917
  • Slominski, A., Wortsman, J., Paus, R., Elias, P. M., Tobin, D. J., & Feingold, K. R. (2008). Skin as an endocrine organ: implications for its function. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms, 5(2), e137-e144. DOI:10.1016/j.ddmec.2008.04.004. Publication link: 0d22b42f-8484-40d3-9f95-4f7ce559fcc0 | PubMed:19492070
  • Van Beek, N., Bodó, E., Kromminga, A., Gáspár, E., Meyer, K., Zmijewski, M. A., ... Paus, R. (2008). Thyroid hormones directly alter human hair follicle functions: Anagen prolongation and stimulation of both hair matrix keratinocyte proliferation and hair pigmentation. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 93(11), 4381-4388. DOI:10.1210/jc.2008-0283. Publication link: e4e6db5f-5686-4e5c-b9a0-5811ba85551e



  • Adly, M. A., Assaf, H. A., Hussein, M. R., & Paus, R. (2006). Analysis of the expression pattern of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, neurturin, their cognate receptors GFRα-1 and GFRα-2, and a common signal transduction element c-Ret in the human scalp skin. Journal of cutaneous pathology, 33(12), 799-808. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0560.2006.00561.x. Publication link: aaab5f73-d6f7-4b22-a982-947dffca5062 | PubMed:17177940
  • Botchkarev, V. A., Yaar, M., Peters, E. M. J., Raychaudhuri, S. P., Botchkareva, N. V., Marconi, A., ... Pincelli, C. (2006). Neurotrophins in skin biology and pathology. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 126(8), 1719-1727. DOI:10.1038/sj.jid.5700270. Publication link: 3aafaade-f9d4-4b53-9a2e-0eeb284df659 | PubMed:16845411
  • Braun, S., Krampert, M., Bodó, E., Kümin, A., Born-Berclaz, C., Paus, R., & Werner, S. (2006). Keratinocyte growth factor protects epedermis and hair follicles from cell death induced by UV irradiation, chemotherapeutic or cytotoxic agents. Journal of Cell Science, 119(23), 4841-4849. DOI:10.1242/jcs.03259. Publication link: b590fe81-bd4a-4300-ba70-5dfe0687b4c1 | PubMed:17090603
  • Budagian, V., Bulanova, E., Paus, R., & Bulfone-Paus, S. (2006). IL-15/IL-15 receptor biology: A guided tour through an expanding universe. Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews, 17(4), 259-280. DOI:10.1016/j.cytogfr.2006.05.001. Publication link: f325a8da-2892-4c78-afbd-43da8ca041dd | PubMed:16815076
  • Bulfone-Paus, S., Bulanova, E., Budagian, V., & Paus, R. (2006). The interleukin-15/interleukin-15 receptor system as a model for juxtacrine and reverse signaling. BioEssays, 28(4), 362-77. DOI:10.1002/bies.20380. Publication link: b74f212c-a52c-4f32-9468-3279cd426b5e | PubMed:16547946
  • Foitzik, K., Krause, K., Conrad, F., Nakamura, M., Funk, W., & Paus, R. (2006). Human scalp hair follicles are both a target and a source of prolactin, which serves as an autocrine and/or paracrine promoter of apoptosis-driven hair follicle regression. American Journal of Pathology, 168(3), 748-756. DOI:10.2353/ajpath.2006.050468. Publication link: 40e8600e-6000-48d2-9306-1958f77425bb | PubMed:16507890
  • Hiroi, A., Ito, T., Seo, N., Uede, K., Yoshimasu, T., Ito, M., ... Furukawa, F. (2006). Male New Zealand Black/KN mice: A novel model for autoimmune-induced permanent alopecia?. British Journal of Dermatology, 155(2), 437-445. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2006.07204.x. Publication link: 3750bbf6-fe23-42d2-9fc7-794a0e653c26 | PubMed:16882186
  • Kruse, C., Bodó, E., Petschnik, A. E., Danner, S., Tiede, S., & Paus, R. (2006). Towards the development of a pragmatic technique for isolating and differentiating nestin-positive cells from human scalp skin into neuronal and glial cell populations: Generating neurons from human skin?. Experimental Dermatology, 15(10), 794-800. DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2006.00471.x. Publication link: 7503d479-77b6-42b5-8284-518e7917ea1a | PubMed:16984261
  • Ohnemus, U., Uenalan, M., Inzunza, J., Gustafsson, J. Å., & Paus, R. (2006). The hair follicle as an estrogen target and source. Endocrine Reviews, 27(6), 677-706. DOI:10.1210/er.2006-0020. Publication link: 95911e95-e025-414c-ac2a-be02143f43e6 | PubMed:16877675
  • Paus, R., Schmelz, M., Bíró, T., & Steinhoff, M. (2006). Frontiers in pruritus research: Scratching the brain for more effective itch therapy. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 116(5), 1174-1185. DOI:10.1172/JCI28553. Publication link: 1a432978-2cad-4579-af55-66da284fa1b8 | PubMed:16670758
  • Peters, E. M. J., Ericson, M. E., Hosoi, J., Seiffert, K., Hordinsky, M. K., Ansel, J. C., ... Scholzen, T. E. (2006). Neuropeptide control mechanisms in cutaneous biology: Physiological and clinical significance. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 126(9), 1937-1947. DOI:10.1038/sj.jid.5700429. Publication link: f259ceab-07e6-4363-bfb8-d197fca66e60 | PubMed:16912691
  • Peters, E. M. J., Stieglitz, M. G., Liezman, C., Overall, R. W., Nakamura, M., Hagen, E., ... Paus, R. (2006). p75 neurotrophin receptor-mediated signaling promotes human hair follicle regression (catagen). American Journal of Pathology, 168(1), 221-234. DOI:10.2353/ajpath.2006.050163. Publication link: 33742c5c-f403-4bd9-b56a-bb75cedbd219 | PubMed:16400025
  • Plonka, P. M., Handjiski, B., Michalczyk, D., Popik, M., & Paus, R. (2006). Oral zinc sulphate causes murine hair hypopigmentation and is a potent inhibitor of eumelanogenesis in vivo. British Journal of Dermatology, 155(1), 39-49. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2006.07376.x. Publication link: 8caac287-25e9-4dce-8551-b48e9b7441fd | PubMed:16792750
  • Schmidt-Ullrich, R., Tobin, D. J., Lenhard, D., Schneider, P., Paus, R., & Scheidereit, C. (2006). NF-κB transmits Eda A1/EdaR signalling to activate Shh and cyclin D1 expression, and controls post-initiation hair placode down growth. Development, 133(6), 1045-1057. DOI:10.1242/dev.02278. Publication link: 5189192a-80a1-4fdd-8ed2-5df36335d3be | PubMed:16481354
  • Tiede, S., & Paus, R. (2006). Lhx2 - Decisive role in epithelial stem cell maintenance, or just the "tip of the iceberg"?. BioEssays, 28(12), 1157-1160. DOI:10.1002/bies.20506. Publication link: 1f7868cc-1a17-4b6b-88a5-0eacbe55e024 | PubMed:17117482
  • Weller, K., Foitzik, K., Paus, R., Syska, W., & Maurer, M. (2006). Mast cells are required for normal healing of skin wounds in mice.The FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 20(13). DOI:10.1096/fj.06-5837fje. Publication link: 4713eb51-bb0c-48cb-9585-45cf677fdc3d | PubMed:16966487
  • Widelitz, R. B., Baker, R. E., Plikus, M., Lin, C. M., Maini, P. K., Paus, R., & Chuong, C. M. (2006). Distinct mechanisms underlie pattern formation in the skin and skin appendages. Birth Defects Research Part C - Embryo Today: Reviews, 78(3), 280-291. DOI:10.1002/bdrc.20075. Publication link: 6cb1fd1a-b4a6-4861-9a7b-f607ea5183b6 | PubMed:17061271
  • Wu, X., Quondamatteo, F., Lefever, T., Czuchra, A., Meyer, H., Chrostek, A., ... Brakebusch, C. (2006). Cdc42 controls progenitor cell differentiation and β-catenin turnover in skin. Genes and Development, 20(5), 571-585. DOI:10.1101/gad.361406. Publication link: bdf5ad93-5d23-4e44-9310-bdf586ea045d | PubMed:16510873



  • Bulfone-Paus, S., Rückert, R., Krause, H., von Bernuth, H., Notter, M., Pohl, T., ... Kunzendorf, U. (2000). An interleukin-2-IgG-Fas ligand fusion protein suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice by triggering apoptosis in activated T cells as a novel strategy for immunosuppression. Transplantation, 69(7), 1386-91. . Publication link: 023c9c08-6934-4d2a-9265-aa2ea41c5f2e | PubMed:10798759
  • Müller-Röver, S., Bulfone-Paus, S., Handjiski, B., Welker, P., Sundberg, J. P., McKay, I. A., ... Paus, R. (2000). Intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and hair follicle regression. J Histochem Cytochem, 48(4), 557-68. . Publication link: 44c6f97a-157e-44e4-9388-bf735759c3ac | PubMed:10727297
  • Rückert, R., Asadullah, K., Seifert, M., Budagian, V. M., Arnold, R., Trombotto, C., ... Bulfone-Paus, S. (2000). Inhibition of keratinocyte apoptosis by IL-15: a new parameter in the pathogenesis of psoriasis?. J Immunol, 165(4), 2240-50. . Publication link: 3e992ca8-3fbb-42d6-ac0b-b8bc71f1f43f | PubMed:10925312
  • Rückert, R., Lindner, G., Bulfone-Paus, S., & Paus, R. (2000). High-dose proinflammatory cytokines induce apoptosis of hair bulb keratinocytes in vivo. British Journal of Dermatology|B J D, 143(5), 1036-9. . Publication link: d71d1383-5e7b-48ce-ba92-8b01d603e325 | PubMed:11069516


  • Musso, T., Calosso, L., Zucca, M., Millesimo, M., Ravarino, D., Giovarelli, M., ... Bulfone-Paus, S. (1999). Human monocytes constitutively express membrane-bound, biologically active, and interferon-gamma-upregulated interleukin-15. Blood, 93(10), 3531-9. . Publication link: d1aead57-53ea-441a-9a1b-842f51e8a205 | PubMed:10233906


  • Botchkarev, V. A., Welker, P., Albers, K. M., Botchkareva, N. V., Metz, M., Lewin, G. R., ... Paus, R. (1998). A new role for neurotrophin-3: involvement in the regulation of hair follicle regression (catagen). The American Journal of Pathology, 153(3), 785-99. DOI:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)65621-0. Publication link: a5b5bf75-14da-4c49-8e57-f3fe8f61d0b8 | PubMed:9736028
  • Bulfone-Paus, S., von Bernuth, H., Rückert, R., Wachtlin, J., Ungureanu, D., Notter, M., ... Kunzendorf, U. (1998). Vaccination with tumor cells engineered to secrete interleukin 2-immunoglobulin G fusion protein induces tumor rejection. Cancer Res., 58(13), 2707-10. . Publication link: 0dd2ce05-5bd6-474e-a5dc-4d142609195c | PubMed:9661877
  • Lindner, G., Rückert, R., Bulfone-Paus, S., & Paus, R. (1998). Inhibition of chemotherapy-induced keratinocyte apoptosis in vivo by an interleukin-15-IgG fusion protein. J Invest Dermatol, 110(4), 457-8. DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00141.x. Publication link: b2f73043-022d-44f2-9e60-3b168ba54d0b | PubMed:9540993
  • Roloff, B., Fechner, K., Slominski, A., Furkert, J., Botchkarev, V. A., Bulfone-Paus, S., ... Paus, R. (1998). Hair cycle-dependent expression of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF receptors in murine skin. The F A S E B Journal, 12(3), 287-97. . Publication link: abcc3c6a-caba-414a-aade-f32f95d618c6 | PubMed:9506472
  • Rückert, R., Herz, U., Paus, R., Ungureanu, D., Pohl, T., Renz, H., & Bulfone-Paus, S. (1998). IL-15-IgG2b fusion protein accelerates and enhances a Th2 but not a Th1 immune response in vivo, while IL-2-IgG2b fusion protein inhibits both. European Journal of Immunology, 28(10), 3312-20. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1521-4141(199810)28:10<3312::AID-IMMU3312>3.0.CO;2-I. Publication link: 0f9e1d7f-8d96-4dc0-aa60-09a877c490ac | PubMed:9808200
  • Rückert, R., Hofmann, U., van der Veen, C., Bulfone-Paus, S., & Paus, R. (1998). MHC class I expression in murine skin: developmentally controlled and strikingly restricted intraepithelial expression during hair follicle morphogenesis and cycling, and response to cytokine treatment in vivo. J Invest Dermatol, 111(1), 25-30. DOI:10.1046/j.1523-1747.1998.00228.x. Publication link: 8a260e80-d80f-4c88-8cd6-459aeb5389e2 | PubMed:9665382


  • Bulfone-Paus, S., Dürkop, H., Paus, R., Krause, H., Pohl, T., & Onu, A. (1997). Differential regulation of human T lymphoblast functions by IL-2 and IL-15. Cytokine, 9(7), 507-13. DOI:10.1006/cyto.1996.0194. Publication link: 6bb73f31-af37-44d5-8bf2-c337526d045f | PubMed:9237813
  • Bulfone-Paus, S., Ungureanu, D., Pohl, T., Lindner, G., Paus, R., Rückert, R., ... Kunzendorf, U. (1997). Interleukin-15 protects from lethal apoptosis in vivo. Nature Medicine, 3(10), 1124-8. . Publication link: f7403cd6-c49d-4099-b816-8ebb7c17de49 | PubMed:9334724
  • Paus, R., Foitzik, K., Welker, P., Bulfone-Paus, S., & Eichmüller, S. (1997). Transforming growth factor-beta receptor type I and type II expression during murine hair follicle development and cycling. J Invest Dermatol, 109(4), 518-26. . Publication link: 40d74b55-d954-424f-a6cc-036cf988ae49 | PubMed:9326384
  • Welker, P., Foitzik, K., Bulfone-Paus, S., Henz, B. M., & Paus, R. (1997). Hair cycle-dependent changes in the gene expression and protein content of transforming factor beta 1 and beta 3 in murine skin. Archives of Dermatological Research, 289(9), 554-7. . Publication link: 0dcf0cd0-aa48-4b1c-bc46-c75d630c6038 | PubMed:9341978