Dr Paul Bowyer

Senior Lecturer

Institute of Inflammation and Repair
Faculty of Medicine and Human Sciences
2.30a Core Technology Building
Grafton St


My current research involves two main areas:

- Discovering the genetic basis of susceptibility to fungal disease in humans using whole exome sequencing of populations with defined disease phenotypes and controls

- the genomics of pathogenicity and drug resistance in the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus

My group works closely with clinicians at UHSM in order to define clinical phenotypes, identify patients and obtain consent to take samples then analyse the samples in the laboratory. We have extensive collaborations with sequencing centres in the UK(EBI) the USA (JCVI) and in Barcelona (CNAG) as well as with Aspergillus researchers worldwide. 

Methodological Knowledge

Bioinformatic analysis of large exome sequence data sets, RNAseq data, genome assembly and comparison of fungal genomes, use of next gen sequencing for bespoke fitness and population studies, microbiome determination and metagenomics of pathogens. Gene manipulation in fungi and human cells.


Tutor for Personal and Professional Development, yr 1 and 2 medicine

Modules on diagnostics and genetics on the MSc in Medical Mycology

Interviewing UCAS candidates, screening statements

Examining PhD and MSc theses


PhD in Molecular Genetics, University of Sheffield, 1991



  • Namvar, S., Warn, P., Farnell, E., Bromley, M., Fraczek, M., Bowyer, P., & Herrick, S. (2015). Aspergillus fumigatus proteases, Asp f 5 and Asp f 13, are essential for airway inflammation and remodelling in a murine inhalation model.Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 45(5). DOI:10.1111/cea.12426. Publication link: b9b341d4-5dd4-483b-bec4-3e850edd898a | PubMed:25270353
  • Smith, N. L. D., Bromley, M. J., Denning, D. W., Simpson, A., Bowyer, P., Overton, N., & Bromley, M. J. (2015). Elevated levels of the neutrophil chemoattractant pro-platelet basic protein in macrophages from individuals with chronic and allergic aspergillosis.The Journal of infectious diseases, 211(4). DOI:10.1093/infdis/jiu490. Publication link: 25e3c2fa-b4a0-4320-8d00-983d8c7eabb7 | PubMed:25193981


  • Alcazar-Fuoli, L., Cairns, T., Lopez, J. F., Zonja, B., Pérez, S., Barceló, D., ... Bignell, E. (2014). A Modified Recombineering Protocol for the Genetic Manipulation of Gene Clusters in Aspergillus fumigatus. P L o S One, 9(11), [e111875]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0111875. Publication link: 1b1b254f-8c00-4eae-94a0-ff316896ade1 | PubMed:25372385
  • Bowyer, P., & Denning, D. W. (2014). Environmental fungicides and triazole resistance in Aspergillus. Pest Management Science, 70(2), 173-178. DOI:10.1002/ps.3567. Publication link: e39ac8a6-7370-47ee-9f00-0b5427f6e23c | PubMed:23616354
  • Bowyer, P., Nieminen, M. T., Novak-Frazer, L., Rautemaa, V., Rajendran, R., Sorsa, T., ... Rautemaa, R. (2014). A novel antifungal is active against Candida albicans biofilms and inhibits mutagenic acetaldehyde production in vitro (PLoS ONE (2014) 9, 5 (e97864) DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097864). PLoS ONE, 9(7), [e101859]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0101859. Publication link: f592d988-4e8d-4ce7-9afb-6413e32ccd94 | PubMed:24991987
  • Nieminen, M. T., Hernandez, M., Novak-Frazer, L., Kuula, H., Ramage, G., Bowyer, P., ... Richardson, R-R. (2014). dl-2-Hydroxyisocaproic Acid Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in a Murine Candida albicans Biofilm Model.Clinical and vaccine immunology : CVI, 21(9). DOI:10.1128/CVI.00339-14. Publication link: bee6cea1-59e8-4905-9811-532c1bb1a83c | PubMed:24990903
  • Richardson, R-R., Sakko, M., Moore, C., Novak-Frazer, L., Rautemaa, V., Sorsa, T., ... Rautemaa, R. (2014). 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid is fungicidal for Candida and Aspergillus species. Mycoses, 57(4), 214-221. DOI:10.1111/myc.12145. Publication link: e44afcb9-83d4-45b8-919e-9f63869fa1d6 | PubMed:24125484
  • Smith, N. L. D., Hankinson, J., Simpson, A., Bowyer, P., Denning, D. W., & Overton, N. (2014). A prominent role for the IL1 pathway and IL15 in susceptibility to chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis.Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, 20(8), O480-O488. DOI:10.1111/1469-0691.12473. Publication link: bd3dc1b3-057e-4f60-9b69-f69f5eec9e6f | PubMed:24274595
  • Smith, N. L. D., Hankinson, J., Simpson, A., Denning, D. W., Bowyer, P., & Overton, N. (2014). Reduced expression of TLR3, TLR10 and TREM1 by human macrophages in CCPA, and novel associations of VEGFA, DENND1B and PLAT. Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 20(11). DOI:10.1111/1469-0691.12643. Publication link: fab56443-a7b9-4388-8a8e-84e362ef72cf | PubMed:24712925
  • Bowyer, P. (2014). Genetic Factors Underlying ABPA. In host publication.. Publication link: 2538ba9e-6763-4aaf-80f9-a9b4b65ec240


  • Buied, A., Moore, C. B., Denning, D. W., & Bowyer, P. (2013). High-level expression of cyp51B in azole-resistant clinical aspergillus fumigatus isolates. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 68(3), 512-514. DOI:10.1093/jac/dks451. Publication link: b340d15c-63f0-4410-b39e-34ec27c6148a | PubMed:23208831
  • Denning, D. W., & Bowyer, P. (2013). Voriconazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus: Should we be concerned?. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 57(4), 521-523. DOI:10.1093/cid/cit321. Publication link: 36969ac6-f5af-4099-8ebf-e8ebf39182df | PubMed:23667265
  • Fraczek, M. G., Bromley, M., Buied, A., Moore, C. B., Rajendran, R., Rautemaa, R., ... Richardson, R-R. (2013). The cdr1B efflux transporter is associated with non-cyp51a-mediated itraconazole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus.The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy, 68(7), 1486-1496. DOI:10.1093/jac/dkt075. Publication link: c352cffd-6ba1-453f-b108-859de2836232 | PubMed:23580559
  • Howard, S. J., Pasqualotto, A. C., Anderson, M. J., Leatherbarrow, H., Albarrag, A. M., Harrison, E., ... Denning, D. W. (2013). Major variations in Aspergillus fumigatus arising within aspergillomas in chronic pulmonary aspergillosis. Mycoses, 56(4), 434-441. DOI:10.1111/myc.12047. Publication link: 74d12d4a-38fb-4920-b5a0-ed46980f404f | PubMed:23369025
  • Marttila, E., Bowyer, P., Sanglard, D., Uittamo, J., Kaihovaara, P., Salaspuro, M., ... Richardson, R-R. (2013). Fermentative 2-carbon metabolism produces carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde in Candida albicans.Molecular oral microbiology, 28(4), 281-291. DOI:10.1111/omi.12024. Publication link: 7bd49b83-5e16-45d5-bba8-8d9040b8ad0d | PubMed:23445445
  • Richardson, R-R., Nieminen, M. T., Novak-Frazer, L., Collins, R., Dawsey, S. P., Dawsey, S. M., ... Rautemaa, R. (2013). Alcohol and acetaldehyde in African fermented milk mursik - A possible etiologic factor for high incidence of esophageal cancer in Western Kenya. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, 22(1), 69-75. DOI:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-12-0908. Publication link: 7f450202-7f40-4d8c-ade5-6db6db0de19e | PubMed:23155139
  • Rizzetto, L., Giovannini, G., Bromley, M., Bowyer, P., Romani, L., & Cavalieri, D. (2013). Strain Dependent Variation of Immune Responses to A. fumigatus: Definition of Pathogenic Species. PLoS ONE, 8(2), [e56651]. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0056651. Publication link: fda0d7cb-e2a9-43b8-a85a-1bf9c123af2e | PubMed:23441211
  • Bowyer, P., Kleinkauf, N., Verweij, P. E., Arendrup, M. C., Donnelly, P. J., Cuenca-Estrella, M., ... Denning, D. W. (2013). Risk assessment on the impact of environmental usage of triazoles on the development and spread of resistance to medical triazoles in Aspergillus species. Stockholm: ECDC; 2013. (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control Technical Report). Stockholm: European Centre for Disease Control.. Publication link: e291f5df-9809-47ea-9353-7fa111709900




  • Fraczek, M. G., Rashid, R., Denson, M., Denning, D. W., & Bowyer, P. (2010). Aspergillus fumigatus allergen expression is coordinately regulated in response to hydrogen peroxide and cyclic AMP. Clinical and Molecular Allergy, 8, [15]. DOI:10.1186/1476-7961-8-15. Publication link: a245c27d-e6ff-41dd-afa8-b8d11f830b18 | PubMed:21047420
  • Siikala, E., Rautemaa, R., Richardson, M., Saxen, H., Bowyer, P., & Sanglard, D. (2010). Persistent Candida albicans colonization and molecular mechanisms of azole resistance in autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) patients. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 65(12), 2505-2513. [dkq354]. DOI:10.1093/jac/dkq354. Publication link: da5557eb-7afe-46e5-90ab-6d83f0fc8917 | PubMed:20876623
  • Bowyer, P. (2010). Fungal Allergy. Socioty for General Microbiology Annual Meeting 2010, University of Nottingham, .. Publication link: 0ba785a6-237c-4923-a859-f41821393e4e







  • Carzaniga, R., Fiocco, D., Bowyer, P., & O'Connell, R. J. (2002). Localization of melanin in conidia of Alternaria alternata using phage display antibodies. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 15(3), 216-224. . Publication link: 85e55173-9034-403f-89ef-c073fcd974eb


  • Bowyer, P. J., Swanson, A. G., & Morris, G. A. (2001). Analyzing and correcting spectrometer temperature sensitivity. Journal of Magnetic Resonance, 152(2), 234-246. DOI:10.1006/jmre.2001.2404. Publication link: f0c8ac35-60b7-4fc1-b89f-eecd2b61d450
  • Mueller, E., Bailey, A., Corran, A., Michael, A. J., & Bowyer, P. (2001). Ornithine decarboxylase knockout in Tapesia yallundae abolishes infection plaque formation in vitro but does not reduce virulence toward wheat. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, 14(11), 1303-1311. . Publication link: c42f4ab4-d3ea-4e8d-b107-deb98eeb6121